“Watch out for the (Bernie Sander) fellow who talks about putting things in order ! Putting things in order always means getting other people under your control.“ – Denis Diderot
Consider the following as you would a paradigm of the levels of operation of a corporation.
1) Executive Level – These are the strategic managers who develop the strategic plan and overall strategic objectives. They coordinate the PR, political links, finance, and overall communication.
* Here top secrecy is most important for this is where OpSec and ComSec can be breached and leaked to everyone’s detriment.
2) Tactical Level – Garnering and distributing weapons and ammo with continuity to all levels, Intel fed back to strategic managers implementing the overall strategic plan.
*Need to know basis.
3) Operations Level – Recruitment, education, funding, and training of lines of operations and functional units therein.
*Need to know basis.
4) Functional Units – Carry out, to the letter, the strategic plans set out at the Executive Level and disseminated at the Tactical and Operational Levels. Final feedback of MIS to Executive Level.
*Need to know basis.
What kind of plan ? Get everyone on the same page.
Like a book ? It is more of a program, developed at the Executive Level, readied at the Tactical level, implemented at the Operational Level, and finally carried out independently against targets of opportunity at the will of the Functional Units.
The paradigm looks like this:
Mission Statement – ->Strategic Plan–> Strategic Objectives–> Policies / Procedures–> MIS–> Strategic Plan (Review)
What is the Mission Statement ? Search out and eliminate all domestic threats and everyone connected.
How can you start ? Know and practice this acronym B.R.A.S.S. by heart:
B – breath control, take a deep breath, exhale, take another deep breath and exhale half way:
R – mental and physical relaxation, as you quickly set your natural point of aim.
A – aim; stock weld to cheek and shoulder cushion; eye relief; hand positioning.
S – sight alignment and sight picture. Get exact eye relief (id est, the distance between the eye and the scope), find the center of mass of the target, focus on front sight — in this case the cross hairs — then see the target’s mass blur; and, lastly and most importantly;
S – sack and squeeze, or the slow, steady, even movement of the trigger completely to the rear using only the front pad of the shooter’s right index finger until the hammer falls.
From the strategic guide above:
Goal: Defend U.S. Citizens and Interests at Home and Abroad The final tenet of the 4D strategy encompasses our nation’s collective efforts to defend the United States’ sovereignty, territory, and its national interests, at home and abroad.
This tenet includes the physical and cyber protection of the United States, its populace, property, and interests, as well as the protection of its democratic principles.
We face an adaptive Islamist/ANTIFA. Empowered by modern technology and emboldened by success, terrorists seek to dictate the timing of their actions while avoiding our strengths and exploiting our vulnerabilities. In an increasingly interconnected and technologically sophisticated world, where time and distance provide less and less protection, we must be prepared to defend our interests, as a nation and as citizens.
Embodied in this strategy is the old adage that the best defense is a good offense. By improving and coordinating our indications and threat warnings, we will be able to detect terrorist plans before they mature. Through continuous law enforcement, Intelligence Community, and military pursuit of terrorist organizations, we will disrupt their ability to execute attacks both at home and abroad, and by expanding our physical and cyber protection and awareness, we will reduce the vulnerability of U.S. personnel, critical infrastructure, and other U.S. interests.
Our response to this complex mission requires a coordinated and focused effort from our entire society—the federal, state and local governments, the private sector, and the American people.
This plan, in concert with the National Strategy for Homeland Security, the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace, and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets will help to prepare our Nation for the work ahead. The attacks of September 11 demonstrate that our adversaries will engage asymmetrically, within and across our borders. They will exploit global systems of commerce, transportation, communications, and other sectors to inflict fear, destruction, and death, to compromise our national security, and to diminish public confidence and weaken our will to fight. Their attacks may be coordinated to counter our offensive activities abroad. Because we are a free, open, and democratic society, we are, and will remain, vulnerable to these dangers. Therefore, as we seek to engage globally, we must ensure a seamless web of defense across the spectrum of engagement to protect our citizens and interests both at home and abroad.
Objective: Implement the National Strategy for Homeland Security.
The establishment of the new Department of Homeland Security will help mobilize and organize our Nation to secure the U.S. homeland from terrorist attacks. A key to this task will be the National Strategy for Homeland Security. The recommendations of the National Strategy for Homeland Security and the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism compliment and reinforce each other. From enhancing the analytical capabilities of the FBI and recapitalizing the U.S. Coast Guard, to preventing terrorist use of WMD through better sensors and procedures and integrating information sharing across the federal government, the objectives in these national strategies are vital to our future success in the war on terrorism.
Objective: Attain domain awareness.
Today’s world is sharply defined by compression of both time and distance. Key to defending our Nation is the effective knowledge of all activities, events, and trends within any specified domain (air, land, sea, cyber) that could threaten the safety, security, or environment of the United States and its populace. This “domain awareness” enables identification of threats as early and as distant from our borders—including territories and overseas installations—as possible, to provide maximum time to determine the optimal course of action.
Domain awareness is dependent upon having access to detailed knowledge of our adversaries distilled through the fusion of intelligence, information, and data across all agencies. It means providing our operating forces—afloat, aloft, and ashore, foreign and domestic—with a single integrated operating matrix of relevant information within their specific domain of responsibility. Domain awareness supports coordinated, integrated, and sustained engagement of the Islamist/ANTIFA across the full spectrum of U.S. instruments of power.
UDU AMMO CONTINUITY – Semiautomatic Rifles And Handguns.
Why? Snipers are part of but separate from the UDUs. Though within the UDU, properly outfitted, any of the Four Man UDU can break off to support. Independent UDUs will likely be within 100-200m of the prescribed domestic threats but still have one ammo for rifle and sidearm that is easily available from almost any retail outlet. But sniper cover is essential and (should) be treated as a separate weapon; however, in close urban warfare with Jihadists and ANTIFA, your UDU’s sniper support can make that judgement.
MAKE BOOKS ON URBAN TERRAIN, TRIANGULATIONS, POLICE RESPONSE TIMES, ENTRANCE & EGRESS, LOCATION (HQs – Buildings Housing Threats) AND SIZE OF ALL DOMESTIC THREATS. – Do NOT put anything online and store all books off-site (with need-to-know) with Excaliburs and strategic plans. NEVER communicate online or with any person in any public situation; or where you don’t FULLY trust the person. And NO ONE who is not fully trusted UDU member.!topic/maps/bJl-be4Nwrg
First UDU drives the Islamists/ANTIFA terrorists to an urban point where the additional UDUs begin the turkey shoot. First UDU remains at the point of egress to eliminate ALL retreating domestic threats. Diversions used: smoke, m-80s in glass bottles, foogas, Ammonia/Chlorine/Dry Ice bombs.
Secondary and tertiary UDUs eliminate ALL domestic terrorists driven to them by First UDU with great prejudice; then follow the rapidly egressing threats to cut off any escape route as the initial UDU hits them as cuts off what they thought was their escape. This will chase Islamists/ANTIFA terrorist to the Final Protective Lines.
The Final Protective Line (FPL) is a line of fire established where an Islamists/ANTIFA terrorist assault is to be halted by the interlocking fires of all available weapons. “A Machine gun or other mass casualty producing weapon should be placed in a position where it can be fired along the length of the FPL.” The unit reinforces the FPL with protective, tactical, and supplemental obstacles and with indirect fire called the Final Protective Fires (FPFs) whenever possible. Initiation of the FPF is the signal for elements and individual Soldiers to shift fires to their assigned portion of the FPL. Tactical wire is positioned to increase the effectiveness of direct fires and is positioned along the friendly side of the machine gun final protective lines (FPLs). Tactical minefields may also be integrated into these wire obstacles or used separately.
First, the first shot, the only shot, must impact the singular target. The statistics here help reduce the “guess work” in his shot. So, choose your range to the target.
Map out different ranges on separate pages. Stealthily approach the one that was unguarded and offered the proper sight picture.
Second. Make sure you have the same ammo, with the same Lot Number for both practice and engagement. By doing this the trajectories wouldn’t vary greatly. As it was one shot you have to be sure.
Third. Know every possible lighting condition, the time, the current temperature, and have already drawn a mirage for quick reference on wind call.
Fourth. Because of your proficiency training, you will have the differences in small and large targets drawn out:
1) On the small target draw an example of where the crosshairs of the objective lens would be; draw the light direction with an arrow; draw the wind direction with a double-headed arrow, and for each practice shot, he should record the elevation and windage before each shot at that distance. After the shot, draw a small point to show where you last saw the cross hairs as he squeezed the trigger.
2) On the large target make a point of the actual location of the bullet impact after each shot for comparison to the shot number on the small target. On the top right note the correct shot per each 10 shot group for quick reference at the sniper nest.
If the target was not stationary, that it had begun to move and not brag, then the differences in the amount of lead used in the projectile would differ so he needed two bullets, one for stationary, one for moving. And contingencies had to be made for targets moving both right and left. In that case, the amount of lead will change with the direction the target is moving and whether the sniper is left or right handed. Right handed shooters need less lead on a target moving left to right because of slight variations in trigger control.
Clean the barrel, torqued everything, confirm zero, got the foam, rod, and near-empty plastic Live Wire bottle, then checked ammo of two bullets. Lastly, and most important, are the basic rules and fundamentals.
Lastly, and most important, are the basic rules and fundamentals:
The most important rule of sniping, or shooting in general, is to be sure of your target and beyond. No second chances and no none-combatants must be hurt. But, as it was one shot this rule did not necessarily apply.
For fundamentals, a steady position was paramount. Once in place he would remove non-firing hand, weld the butt of the stock in the pocket of the shoulder and cheek, bring rearward pressure with his firing hand, get his elbows in a comfortable position, make sure his welds consistent, get good bone support, relax, and practice his natural point of aim.
Again, know the acronym B.R.A.S.S. by heart:
B – breath control, take a deep breath, exhale, take another deep breath and exhale half way:
R – mental and physical relaxation, as you quickly set your natural point of aim.
A – aim; stock weld to cheek and shoulder cushion; eye relief; hand positioning.
S – sight alignment and sight picture. Get exact eye relief (id est, the distance between the eye and the scope), find the center of mass of the target, focus on front sight — in this case the cross hairs — then see the target’s mass blur; and, lastly and most importantly;
S – slack and squeeze, or the slow, steady, even movement of the trigger completely to the rear using only the front pad of the shooter’s right index finger until the hammer falls.
As for post-shot, calculated that was there would be zero time for analysis but at least keep his stock weld, keep the proper squeeze to the read, continue to look through the scope, relax, let the barrel reset on the target and release the trigger only after the recoil stops and the barrel resets on the target.
This should only take about two seconds for the shot.
Cover is natural or artificial protection from the fire of Islamist/ANTIFA weapons.
Natural cover (ravines, hollows, reverse slopes) and artificial cover (fighting positions, trenches, walls) protect the sniper from flat trajectory fires and partly protect it from high-angle fires and the effects of nuclear explosions.
Even the smallest depression or fold in the ground may provide some cover when the sniper needs it most. A 6-inch depression, properly used, may provide enough cover to save the sniper under fire.
Snipers must always look for and take advantage of all the cover that the terrain provides. By combining this habit with proper movement techniques, the sniper can protect himself from view and fire from police, Feds, or SWAT. To get protection from Islamist/ANTIFA fire when moving, the sniper uses routes that put cover between itself and the Islamist/ANTIFA.
Concealment is natural or artificial protection from Islamist/ANTIFA observation. The surroundings may provide natural concealment that needs no change before use (bushes, grass, and shadows). The sniper creates artificial concealment from materials such as burlap and camouflage nets, or it can move natural materials (bushes, leaves, buildings, and grass) from their original location. The sniper must consider the effects of the change of seasons on the concealment provided by both natural and artificial materials.
The “principles of concealment” include the following:
First, avoid unnecessary movement. Remain still. Movement is the attractor of attention.
The position of the urban sniper is concealed when he remains still, but the sniper’s position is easily detected when he moves. Movement against a stationary background makes the sniper stand out clearly. When the sniper must change positions, it moves carefully over a concealed route to a new position, preferably during limited visibility. Snipers move inches at a time, slowly and cautiously, always scanning ahead for the next position.
Second, use all available concealment. Available concealment includes the following:
1) The background is important as the sniper must use it to prevent detection. The trees, bushes, grass, earth, and man-made structures that form the background vary in color and appearance. This makes it possible for the urban sniper to blend with them. The urban sniper selects trees or bushes to blend with the uniform and to absorb the figure outline. Snipers must always assume they are under observation.
2) A sniper in the open stands out clearly, but the sniper in the shadows of a building is difficult to see. Shadows exist under most conditions, day and night. A sniper should never fire from the edge of a wood line; he should fire from a position inside the wood line (in the shade or shadows provided by the tree tops), large plants, or heaps of trash, and so forth.
3) Avoid skylining. Figures on the skyline can be seen from a great distance, even at night, because a dark outline stands out against the lighter sky. The silhouette formed by the body makes a good target.
4) Alter familiar outlines. Military equipment and the human body are familiar outlines to the police or reporters. The sniper should alter or disguise these revealing shapes by using the Ghillie suit or outer smock that is covered with irregular patterns of garnish. The sniper must alter his outline from his head to the soles of his tennis shoes.
5) Observe noise discipline. Noise, such as talking, can be picked up by Islamist/ANTIFA patrols or observation posts. The sniper silences his gear before a mission so that it makes no sound when he walks or runs.
The urban sniper should always remember the following rules: always assume the area is under Islamist/ANTIFA observation, and move slowly.
1) A sniper counts his movement progress by feet and inches.
2) Do not cause overhead movement of trees, bushes, or tall grasses by rubbing against them.
3) Plan every movement and move in segments of the route at a time.
4) Lastly, stop, look, and listen often.
Move during disturbances such as gunfire, explosions, aircraft noise, the wind, media trucks, speeches, or anything that will distract the Islamist/ANTIFA’s attention or conceal the urban sniper’s movement.
Once in the nest, the individual movement techniques used by the urban sniper are designed to allow movement without being detected.
These movement techniques are sniper low crawl, medium crawl, high crawl, hand-and-knees crawl, and walking.
1. The sniper low crawl is used when concealment is extremely limited, when close to the Islamist/ANTIFA, or when occupying a firing position.
2. The medium crawl is used when concealment is limited and the team needs to move faster than the sniper low crawl allows. The medium crawl is similar to the infantryman’s low crawl.
3. The high crawl is used when concealment is limited but high enough, like a window sill, to allow the sniper to raise his body off the ground. The high crawl is similar to the infantry high crawl.
4. The hand-and-knees crawl is used when some concealment is available and the sniper team needs to move faster than the medium crawl.
Finally, walking is only used when there is good concealment, it is not likely the Islamist/ANTIFA is close, and speed is required.
An urban sniper cannot afford detection by the Islamist/ANTIFA nor can he successfully fight the Islamist/ANTIFA in sustained engagements. When selecting escape routes, the urban sniper must remember his strengths and weaknesses.
The following guidelines should be used when selecting in planning an urban sniper’s egress:
1. Avoid known Islamist/ANTIFA positions and obstacles.
2. Seek walkways and terrain that offers the best cover and concealment; avoid difficult terrain (swamps, dense woods, and so forth).
3. Use roads or footpaths.
4. Blend into built-up or populated areas.
5. Avoid areas of heavy Islamist/ANTIFA activity.
When the urban sniper hits his target here are the immediate actions:
1) Move right after the shot.
2) Use wet naps to wash the powder smell off you.
3) Hide the casing.
4) Break down the weapon and hide the parts back in the crutches.
5) Always assume the area is under Islamist/ANTIFA observation.
Because of this and the small amount of firepower he has, the urban sniper must never become decisively engaged with the Islamist/ANTIFA.
He must rehearse immediate action drills to the extent that they become a natural and immediate reaction should it make unexpected visual contact with the Islamist/ANTIFA.
If the sniper sees the Islamist/ANTIFA and the Islamist/ANTIFA does not see him in the nest, he freezes, assumes the best covered and concealed position, and remains in position until the Islamist/ANTIFA has passed.
The sniper should have m-80s and smoke bombs to lob in order to divert the enemies attention after the shot, then proceed the opposite direction.
Unlike Oswald, you generally don’t leave the weapon and spent casings where you work and go have lunch as if nothing is happening. That’s irretrievably stupid.
You would field strip the weapon and hide the parts in a well-disguised hole in the wall, wash the powder residue off you, and exit immediately to blend into the crowd.
Again, remember, the equipment necessary for the urban sniper to effectively perform his mission is simple: the sniper carries only what is essential to successfully complete his mission.
1) Wear jeans.
2) No sidearm whatsoever should be carried, but the urban sniper may carry a disposable Bauer .25, in case.
3) Carry no compass, no maps, no calculator, nothing camouflaged, no data books, no political buttons or logos. Nothing but a plan, and rehearsal done over and over in his head.
4) Carry the concealed weapon, a fake ID, and the perfect disguise.
And above all, you must have the WILLPOWER. Practice WILLPOWER in everything. It is easy, you know. Just look and think from behind your eyes. Nothing is whole, nothing is real, so talk to people and not through them.
Maximum Effective ranges – Cartridge Maximum effective range:
5.56x45mm 300–500 m
7.62×51mm 800–1,000 m
7.62×54mm R 800–1,000 m
.300 Winchester Magnum 900–1,200 m
.338 Lapua Magnum 1,300–1,600 m
.50 BMG /
12.7 x 107mm 1,500–2,000 m 14.5 x 114mm 1,900–2,300 m
Remember, in a real life scenario, the target will most likely be moving. This movement adds yet another variable to be dealt with before squeezing off a shot.
Engaging moving targets not only requires the sniper to determine the target’s distance and the wind’s effects on the round, but he must also consider the lateral speed and angle of the target, the round’s time of flight, and the placement of a proper lead to compensate for both. These added variables increase the chance of a miss.
Therefore, the sniper should engage moving targets when it is the only option. To engage moving targets, the sniper must employ the following technique:
Leading – Engaging moving targets requires the sniper to place the crosshairs ahead of the target’s movement. The distance the cross hairs are placed in front of the target’s movement is called a lead. There are six factors in determining leads:
1) Speed of the target – As a target moves faster, it will move a greater distance during the bullet’s flight. Therefore, the lead increases as the target’s speed increases,
2) Angle of movement – A target moving perpendicular to the bullet’s flight path moves a greater lateral distance than a target moving at an angle away from or toward the bullet’s path.
Therefore, a target moving at a 45-degree angle covers less ground than a target moving at a 90-degree angle,
3) Range to target – The farther away a target is, the longer it takes for the bullet to reach it. Therefore, the lead must be increased as the distance to the target increases, and,
4) Wind effects – The sniper must consider how the wind will affect the trajectory of the round. A wind blowing against the target’s direction of movement requires less of a lead than a wind blowing in the same direction as the target’s movement,
5) Tracking – requires the sniper to establish an aiming point ahead of the target’s movement and to maintain it as the weapon is fired. This requires the weapon and body position to be moved while following the target and firing.
6) Trapping or Ambushing – This is the sniper’s preferred method of engaging moving targets. The sniper must establish an aiming point ahead of the target and squeeze the trigger when the target reaches it. This method allows the sniper’s body to remain motionless.
Firing a snapshot – A sniper uses this technique to engage a target that only presents itself briefly, then resumes cover. Once he establishes a pattern, he can aim in the vicinity of the targets expected appearance and fire a snap shot at the moment of exposure. Leads are calculated in the following manner:
1) Time of flight ( in seconds ) x target speed ( in feet per seconds / fps ) = lead ( in feet ), then
2) Take lead ( in feet ) x .3048 = meters, next
3) Take meters x 1000 = mil., and
4) Then divide lead by range.
Time of flight is usually: 100m = .1 sec, 200m = .2, 300m = .4, 500m = .7, 600m = .9, 700m = 1.0, 800m = 1.3, 900m = 1.5, and 1000m =1.8
Target speed at a slow gait = 1fps, fast gait = 2fps, slow walk = 4fps, fast walk = 6fps, run = 11fps.
The most popular military sniper rifles (in terms of numbers in service) are chambered for .30 caliber ammunition, such as 7.62×51 and 7.62×54R (r=rankin). Since sniper rifles of this class must compete with several other types of military weapons with similar range, snipers invariably must employ skilled field craft to conceal their position.
The recent trend in specialized military sniper rifles is to larger calibers that have greater range, such as the anti-personnel .338 Lapua Magnum cartridge and anti-materiel cartridges like the .50 BMG, 12.7 x 107mm, and the 14.5 x 114mm. This allows snipers to take fewer risks, and spend less time finding concealment when facing enemies that are not equipped with similar weapons.
Historically, in military and law enforcement use, the term sniper rifle is frequently applied to rifles used to ensure accurate placement of shots at greater ranges than other small arms. A typical sniper rifle is built for optimal levels of accuracy, fitted with a telescopic sight and chambered for a military centerfire cartridge. The term is often used in the media to describe any type of accurised firearm fitted with a telescopic sight that is employed against human targets.
The military role of a sniper (a term derived from the snipe, a bird which was difficult to hunt and shoot) dates back to the turn of the 18th century, but the sniper rifle itself is a much more recent development. Advances in technology, specifically that of telescopic sights and more accurate manufacturing, allowed armies to equip specially-trained soldiers with rifles that would enable them to deliver precise shots over greater distances than regular infantry weapons.
The rifle itself could be a standard rifle (at first, a bolt-action rifle); however, when fitted with a telescopic sight, it would become a sniper rifle.
During World War II, the Mosin-Nagant rifle mounted with a telescopic sight was commonly used as a sniper rifle by Russian snipers.
In the American Civil War, Confederate troops equipped with barrel-length three power scopes mounted on the then premium British Whitworth rifle had been known to kill Union officers at ranges bordering 800 yards, an unheard-of distance at that time.
The earliest sniper rifles were little more than conventional military or target rifles with long-range “peep sights” designed for use on the target range. Only from the beginning of World War I, did specially adapted sniper rifles come to the fore, with one of the first scoped military sniper rifles being the SMLE Mk III (HT).
Typical World War II-era sniper rifles were generally standard issue rifles (hand-picked for accuracy) with a 2.5x telescopic sight and cheek-rest fitted, with the bolt turned down (if necessary) to allow operation with the scope affixed. By the end of the war, forces on all sides had specially trained soldiers equipped with sniper rifles, and they have played an increasingly important role in military operations ever since.
Modern sniper rifles can be generally divided into two basic classes: military and law enforcement.
U.S. Marine Corps sniper team with an M24 sniper rifle (note front sight attachment rail on top of the barrel not present on the M40), during sniper training.
Sniper rifles aimed at military service often deliberately sacrifice a small degree of accuracy to obtain a very high degree of durability, reliability, sturdiness, serviceability and repairability under adverse environment and combat conditions.
Military snipers and sharpshooters might also be required to carry their rifles, along with other equipment, for long distances, and as such weight considerations are very important. Military organizations often operate under strict budgetary constraints, which influences the type and quality of sniper rifles they acquire.
Law enforcement (and, more recently, counter-terrorism) scenarios require the sniper to hit a particular part of the aggressor’s body, usually the head. For this reason, sniper rifles used by police forces are generally required to have greater accuracy over military rifles, but at shorter ranges, often less than 100 metres.
Some of the first examples of sniper rifles designed specifically to meet police requirements were those required by West German police corps after the Munich massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics. The Heckler & Koch PSG1 is one of the rifles designed to meet these criteria and is often referred to as an ideal example of this type of sniper rifle. The FN Special Police Rifle is another example of a rifle aimed at law enforcement rather than military agencies.
Compared to military rifles, police sniper rifles are heavier and have a shorter overall length for increased maneuverability in urban areas. Police rifles have superior accuracy and tighter tolerances in construction, and cost more since bloated budgets of police departments often allow more expensive rifles to be acquired.
Sniper rifle features can vary widely depending on the specific tasks it is intended to perform. Features that may distinguish a sniper rifle from other weapons are the presence of a telescopic sight, unusually long overall weapon length a stock designed for firing from a prone position, and the presence of a bipod and other accessories.
The single most important characteristic that sets a sniper rifle apart from other military or police small arms is the mounting of a telescopic sight, which is relatively easily distinguishable from smaller optical aiming devices found on some modern assault rifles and submachine guns (SMG).
A telescopic sight allows a person to see targets more precisely by virtue of the magnified image it offers, and therefore aim the rifle more accurately. The telescopic sights used on sniper rifles differ from other optical aiming devices in that they offer much greater magnification (more than 4x and up to 40x) and much larger objective lens (40mm in diameter), resulting in a brighter image. Most telescopic lenses employed in military or police roles have special reticles to aid the shot with the judgement of distance, which is an important factor in accurate shot placement due to the curved trajectory of a bullet.
The choice between bolt-action and semiautomatic (more commonly recoil or gas operation) is usually determined by specific requirements of the sniper’s role as envisioned in a particular organization, with each design having advantages and disadvantages.
For a given cartridge, a bolt-action rifle is cheaper to build and maintain, more reliable and accurate, and lighter; this is due to fewer moving parts in the mechanism. In addition, the lack of a magazine allows for more versatile fire-positioning and manual case ejection allows for greater discretion.
Semiautomatic weapons can serve a cross-purpose use as both a battle rifle and a sniper rifle, and allow for a greater rate (and hence volume) of fire. As such rifles may be modified service rifles, an additional benefit can be the commonality of operation with the issued infantry rifle. A bolt-action is the most commonly used in both military and police roles due to its higher accuracy and ease of maintenance. Anti-materiel applications such as mine clearing and special forces operations tend to see a higher usage of semiautomatics.
A designated marksman rifle (DMR) is less specialized than a typical military sniper rifle, often only intended to extend the range of a group of soldiers. Therefore, when a semiautomatic action is used it is due to its ability to cross over into roles similar to the roles of standard issue weapons. There may also be additional logistical advantages if the DMR uses the same ammunition as the more common standard issue weapons. These rifles enable a higher volume of fire but sacrifice some long range accuracy. They are frequently built from existing selective fire battle rifles or assault rifles.
A police semiautomatic sniper rifle may be used in situations that require a single sniper to engage multiple targets in quick succession.
In a military setting, logistical concerns are the primary determinant of the cartridge used, so sniper rifles are usually limited to rifle cartridges commonly used by the military force employing the rifle. Since large national militaries generally change slowly, military rifle ammunition is frequently battle-tested and well-studied by ammunition and firearms experts.
Consequently, police forces tend to follow military practices in choosing a sniper rifle cartridge instead of trying to break new ground with less-perfected (but possibly better) ammunition.
Before the introduction of the 7.62×51mm cartridge in the 1950s, standard military cartridges utilized were the .30-06 Springfield (United States), .303 British (United Kingdom) and 7.92×57mm (Germany).
The .30-06 Springfield continued in service with U.S. Marine Corps snipers during the Vietnam War in the 1970s, well after general adoption of the 7.62×51mm. At the present time, in both the Western world and within NATO, 7.62×51mm is currently the primary cartridge of choice for military and police sniper rifles.
Worldwide, the trend is similar. The preferred sniper rifle in Russia is another .30 calibre military cartridge, the 7.62x54mm R, which has similar performance to the 7.62×51mm. This cartridge was introduced in 1891, and both Russian sniper rifles of the modern era, the Mosin-Nagant and the Dragunov sniper rifle, are chambered for it.